9 Oct 2019, 10:10 pm
Laboratory Animals
Laboratory Animals, Ahead of Print.
The objective was to determine the rate at which Chinese journals include Animal Research: Reporting of In Vivo Experiments (ARRIVE) Guidelines/Gold Standard Publication Checklist (GSPC) in their instructions for authors, and the awareness and recognition of editors. The survey was performed on Chinese journals. The most recent versions each journal's instructions for authors were downloaded, and the information related to the ARRIVE/GSPC was collected. A self-developed questionnaire was used to conduct the survey among the editors. Questionnaires were sent to 238 qualified journals and 198 of them returned them, achieving an 83.2% response rate. The results showed that none of the journals included the ARRIVE/GSPC in their instructions for authors, and the awareness rate was only 13.1% (26/198). The participants who were unaware of the ARRIVE/GSPC were less likely than those who were aware of them to believe it was necessary to include the ARRIVE/GSPC in the instructions for authors (23.3% vs. 61.5%), and less likely to request authors in their manuscript preparation (28.5% vs. 88.5%), editors in the editing and processing (28.5% vs. 84.6%) and reviewers in peer review stage (28.5% vs. 92.3%) to follow the ARRIVE/GSPC. Currently no Chinese journals include the ARRIVE/GSPC in their instructions for authors. The recognition rate of the ARRIVE/GSPC was low among the editors. So, we suggest that Chinese journals should promote inclusion of the ARRIVE/GSPC in journals' instructions for authors. It is also important to educate researchers and editors alike to increase their understanding of the ARRIVE/GSPC, so that the quality of reporting of animal study can be improved.
4 Oct 2019, 5:45 am
Laboratory Animals
Laboratory Animals, Ahead of Print.
Animal models are in constant development to benefit scientific research. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is considered a very complex disease due to its complicated pathogenesis, and patients with rheumatic disease around the world are still unable to obtain effective, simple and curable treatment. In order to obtain a clear insight into the pathogenesis of RA, a rat model was established based on the concept of Bi syndrome in Traditional Chinese Medicine by simulating the conditions of RA as much as possible via the change in the physical conditions wind, damp, cold and heat (WDCH). For the first time, a new WDCH-induced RA model in female rats was successfully established and evaluated by body-weight change, paw swelling, blood cells analysis, spleen and thymus coefficients, autoantibodies and serum cytokine changes and histopathology. This model is characterised by its objectivity, no exogenous induction, short modelling time, extremely elevated expression level of autoantibodies and obvious histopathological change. The establishment of such a new model may provide more benefits in the research of the pathogenesis of RA.
1 Oct 2019, 9:20 pm
Laboratory Animals
Laboratory Animals, Ahead of Print.
Animal models in psychiatric research are indispensable for insights into mechanisms of behaviour and mental disorders. Distress is an important aetiological factor in psychiatric diseases, especially depression, and is often used to mimic the human condition. Modern bioethics requires balancing scientific progress with animal welfare concerns. Therefore, scientifically based severity assessment of procedures is a prerequisite for choosing the least compromising paradigm according to the 3Rs principle. Evidence-based severity assessment in psychiatric animal models is scarce, particularly in depression research. Here, we assessed severity in a cognitive depression model by analysing indicators of stress and well-being, including physiological (body weight and corticosterone metabolite concentrations) and behavioural (nesting and burrowing behaviour) parameters. Additionally, a novel approach for objective individualised severity grading was employed using clustering of voluntary wheel running (VWR) behaviour. Exposure to the paradigm evoked a transient elevation of corticosterone, but neither affected body weight, nesting or burrowing behaviour. However, the performance in VWR was impaired after recurrent stress exposure, and the individual severity level increased, indicating that this method is more sensitive in detecting compromised welfare. Interestingly, the direct comparison to a somatic, chemically induced colitis model indicates less distress in the depression model. Further objective severity assessment studies are needed to classify the severity of psychiatric animal models in order to balance validity and welfare, reduce the stress load and thus promote refinement.
27 Sep 2019, 4:02 am
Laboratory Animals
Laboratory Animals, Volume 53, Issue 5, Page 513-513, October 2019.
25 Sep 2019, 11:06 pm
Laboratory Animals
Laboratory Animals, Ahead of Print.
Hypothermia is a treatment strategy for different clinical conditions and an essential part of cardiopulmonary bypass in complex cardiac procedures. Clinically, cooling patients is achieved via a mattress and heat exchanger integrated into a membrane oxygenator connected to a waterbed using a refrigerator system based on volatile and toxic liquids. Peltier elements are known as environmentally friendly thermoelectric generators that enable rapid warming and cooling. In this paper, we describe the construction of a novel device for rapid and precise control of mouse warming and cooling using thermoelectric Peltier elements. Six male BALB/c mice were subjected to deep hypothermia and were rewarmed under full physiological monitoring. After rewarming, all animals were observed for two hours, and pathology was evaluated in several organs. All animals tolerated the rapid cooling process well and remained active after rewarming. Temperature-relevant changes were seen via electrocardiography, with heart-rate patterns showing a strong linear correlation to body temperature. No myocardial ischaemia was seen. However, two animals experienced bradycardic atrial fibrillation which spontaneously converted to normal sinus rhythm during rewarming. No histological damage was seen in the heart, liver, kidney or lungs. Our device can effectively be used for heat shock and hypothermia studies in mice, and we foresee no obstacles for its application to other small rodents such as hamsters and young rats. In comparison to known experimental and clinical methods of hypothermia, our device is environmentally friendly, cost-effective and easy to handle, allowing precise control and maintenance of body temperatures ranging from 18℃ to 42℃.
16 Sep 2019, 10:03 pm
Laboratory Animals
Laboratory Animals, Ahead of Print.
The parenteral administration of hydrophobic substances in vivo requires the use of organic solvents to ensure sufficient solubility and avoid precipitation. Dimethyl sulfoxide is commonly used for this purpose. Based on the common assumption that polyethylene glycol (PEG) is non-toxic, our local regulatory authorities recently recommended the use of PEG instead. However, mice injected intraperitoneally (i.p.) with PEG 200 at a dose of 8 mL/kg (i.e. 9 g/kg) did not tolerate PEG 200 well, and half of the animals had to be euthanized. Our results demonstrate that although PEG 200 is generally considered to be harmless, it can be toxic when injected i.p. and is painful for the recipient mice. Nevertheless, it can be used as a solvent for repeated i.p. injections in mice at a dose of 2 mL/kg (i.e. 2.25 g/kg) without obvious signs of systemic toxicity.
16 Sep 2019, 10:03 pm
Laboratory Animals
Laboratory Animals, Ahead of Print.
Commercial mouse chow is designed to provide a complete, nutrient-rich diet, and it can contain upwards of 100 mg/kg manganese, an essential mineral. Manganese acts as a relaxation time-shortening contrast agent for both T1 and T2, and where standard chow is hydrated in the gastrointestinal tract, bright signals are produced when using T1-weighted imaging (T1WI). As a result of peristalsis, gastrointestinal hyperintensities result in temporally unstable signals, leading to image ghosting and decreased resolution from that prescribed. To avoid the problem, various methods of gastrointestinal tract modulation, including the use of intestinal cleansing with laxatives and dietary modulation, have been reported. Here, dietary modulation has been extended to the use of a biologically innocuous, long-term change of diet. In this study, we report on the use of a commercially available manganese-free chow to improve the image quality of the gastrointestinal tract. This manganese-free chow, apart from the omitted manganese which is available in tap water, is a complete diet and readily available. We investigated the time-dependent, diet-related gastrointestinal intensities on short-TR T1WI magnetic resonance imaging; monitored body mass, food and water consumption and standard blood biochemistry analysis following diet change; and determined manganese concentration in blood plasma following a five-day change to manganese-free chow. We show that the manganese-free chow presents a refinement to other gastrointestinal tract modulation, as it avoids the need for invasive procedures for gut voiding and can be provided ad libitum so that animals can be maintained with no need for prescribed diet change before imaging.
11 Sep 2019, 10:16 pm
Laboratory Animals
Laboratory Animals, Ahead of Print.
This article provides recommendations for the care of laboratory zebrafish (Danio rerio) as part of the further implementation of Annex A to the European Convention on the protection of vertebrate animals used for experimental and other scientific purposes, EU Commission Recommendation 2007/526/EC and the fulfilment of Article 33 of EU Directive 2010/63, both concerning the housing and care of experimental animals. The recommendations provide guidance on best practices and ranges of husbandry parameters within which zebrafish welfare, as well as reproducibility of experimental procedures, are assured.Husbandry procedures found today in zebrafish facilities are numerous. While the vast majority of these practices are perfectly acceptable in terms of zebrafish physiology and welfare, the reproducibility of experimental results could be improved by further standardisation of husbandry procedures and exchange of husbandry information between laboratories. Standardisation protocols providing ranges of husbandry parameters are likely to be more successful and appropriate than the implementation of a set of fixed guidance values neglecting the empirically successful daily routines of many facilities and will better reflect the wide range of environmental parameters that characterise the natural habitats occupied by zebrafish.A joint working group on zebrafish housing and husbandry recommendations, with members of the European Society for Fish Models in Biology and Medicine (EUFishBioMed) and of the Federation of European Laboratory Animal Science Associations (FELASA) has been given a mandate to provide guidelines based on a FELASA list of parameters, ‘Terms of Reference’.
11 Sep 2019, 10:16 pm
Laboratory Animals
Laboratory Animals, Ahead of Print.
The streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mouse model has been extensively used as a model for diabetes and diabetic nephropathy, but it is still influenced by many off-target toxic effects and large variation in diabetes induction. Therefore, the aim of this study was to compare different STZ dosing regimens to optimise animal welfare and minimise unwanted effects of STZ measured by acute renal toxicity, impairment of stomach emptying and weight loss. Male 129/Sv mice were injected with 1 × 50, 1 × 100, 1 × 125, 1 × 150, 1 × 200, 5 × 50, 2 × 100 and 2 × 125 mg/kg STZ or vehicle and euthanized 24 hours after the last injection. All STZ doses were found to induce significant enlargement of the stomach. All multiple doses of STZ increased the albumin:creatinine ratio significantly, and immunohistochemical staining of KIM-1 and Ki-67 was increased by 5 × 50 and 2 × 100 mg/kg STZ. Renal gene expression of Cdkn1a, KIM-1, NGAL and MCP-1 was increased by most of the STZ doses. No difference was found between the double intermediate dose of 2 × 100 mg/kg and the multiple low dose of 5 × 50 mg/kg regarding either stomach enlargement or kidney injury. However, the reduced fasting periods and injections in the 2 × 100 mg/kg STZ group could have lowered the impact on the general condition measured as change in body weight. This shows that the double intermediate dose is a good alternative to the recommended multiple low dose for diabetes induction in these mice. The STZ-induced mouse model has again proven to be a model with large variations affecting both animal welfare and model robustness.
5 Sep 2019, 6:41 pm
Laboratory Animals
Laboratory Animals, Ahead of Print.
Severity assessment in animal models is a data-driven process. We therefore present a use case for building a repository for interlaboratory collaboration with the potential of uploading specific content, making group announcements and internal prepublication discussions. We clearly show that it is possible to offer such a structure with minimal effort and a basic understanding of web-based services, also taking into account the human factor in individual data collection. The FOR2591 Online Repository serves as a blueprint for other groups, so that one day not only will data sharing among consortium members be improved but the transition from the private to the persistent domain will also be easier.