18 Aug 2022, 2:53 am
Laboratory Animals
Laboratory Animals, Volume 56, Issue 4, Page 401-401, August 2022.
18 Aug 2022, 2:53 am
Laboratory Animals
Laboratory Animals, Volume 56, Issue 4, Page 308-308, August 2022.
12 Aug 2022, 10:24 pm
Laboratory Animals
Laboratory Animals, Ahead of Print.
This study aimed to survey and analyze the profile of experimental dental research in animals, verifying its trends. We evaluated studies developed with the use of animals in vivo, published in 10 dental journals with high impact factors, from 2015 to 2020. From 1652 studies retrieved, 594 involved in vivo experimentation on animals and were analyzed further. Rats were the species most used and with the highest mean of animals per study. Ferrets, although presenting the lowest rate of publications, had the second highest mean of animals per study. Periodontics was the dental specialty with the highest number of publications, while oral rehabilitation had the lowest number. The data on the institution responsible for reviewing animal research protocols approval, sample size, anesthesia and analgesia were provided in 93.10%, 83%, 70.54% and 23.74% of studies, respectively. In 53% of studies, euthanasia was specified and anesthetic overdose was the method most used. Over the period analyzed, there was a reduction in animal studies in vivo, and periodontics was the specialty that most used this experimental model. Although most studies mentioned approval by an ethics committee, some publications neglected to mention sample size, anesthesia and euthanasia. The omission of essential information may raise scientific and ethical concerns.
12 Aug 2022, 10:20 pm
Laboratory Animals
Laboratory Animals, Ahead of Print.
Foot ulceration annually affects millions of patients and accounts for billions of dollars in medical expenses in the US alone. Many previous studies have investigated co-morbidities associated with impaired healing, such as microbial infection, compromised circulation, and diabetes. By comparison, little is known about how wound healing proceeds in plantar skin, despite its many unique specializations related to its load-bearing function. One of the main challenges in modeling plantar wounds is the difficulty in maintaining wound dressings, as animals generally have a low tolerance to wearing bandages on their feet. With assistance from the MGH Center for Comparative Medicine, we developed a positive reinforcement-based behavioral training regimen that successfully induced tolerance for plantar dressings in swine, which is a critical first step towards enabling in vivo study of the wound healing process in this highly specialized skin area. This training program will be described in detail in this manuscript.
8 Aug 2022, 11:21 pm
Laboratory Animals
Laboratory Animals, Ahead of Print.
Severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a multifactorial injury process involving respiratory, cardiovascular and immune functions in addition to the brain. Thus, live animal models are needed to study the molecular, cellular and systemic mechanisms of TBI. The ethical use of laboratory animals requires that the benefits of approaches be carefully weighed against potential harm to animals. Welfare assessments adapted to severe TBI research are lacking. Here, we introduce a scoresheet to describe and monitor potential distress in animals, which includes general welfare (body weight, general appearance and spontaneous behaviour) and TBI-specific indices (respiratory function, pain, locomotor impairment, wound healing). Implementation of this scoresheet in Sprague–Dawley rats subjected to severe lateral fluid percussion TBI revealed a period of suffering limited to four days, followed by a recovery to normal welfare scores within 10–15 days, with females showing a worse impact than males. The scores indicate that animal suffering in this model is transitory compared with TBI consequences in humans. The scoresheet allows for the implementation of refinement measures including (1) analgesia during the initial period following TBI and (2) humane endpoints set (30% weight loss, score ≥90 and/or respiratory problems). This animal scoresheet tailored to TBI research provides a basis for further refinement of animal research paradigms aimed at understanding or treating the sequelae of severe TBI.
18 Jul 2022, 10:08 pm
Laboratory Animals
Laboratory Animals, Ahead of Print.
The objective of this study was to describe prolonged surgical anaesthesia and recovery in fire salamanders (Salamandra salamandra) using tricaine methanesulfonate (MS-222). A total of 14 salamanders were anaesthetised for electromyography wire implantation. Sodium bicarbonate buffered solutions (0.5–4 g l–1) of MS-222 were prepared (adjusted to pH 7.0). Anaesthesia was induced by partial immersion in pre-oxygenated 3 g l–1 solution for 20 min. Buprenorphine (0.5 mg kg–1) was administered subcutaneously. During microsurgery, heart rate (HR), solution pH and temperature were recorded. Reflectance pulse oximeter (SpO2) (Masimo Rad-57) was recorded in two salamanders. Anaesthetic plane and MS-222 pH stability (pH 7.6) were maintained by renewing administration of oxygenated MS-222 solution (0.5–3 g l–1) onto swabs that partially covered the body. Recovery started at the end of surgery (MS-222 0 g l–1). Postoperatively, salamanders were given oral meloxicam (0.2 mg kg–1). Mean time for loss of righting reflex during induction was 13.7 ± 2.2 min. Duration of anaesthesia and time to recovery were 111 ± 24.2 and 31 ± 10.3 min, respectively. Due to complications, two salamanders did not recover. Baseline HR was 67.4 ± 34.5 beats/min, and it decreased significantly until recovery (p ≤ 0.0001). In two salamanders, baseline SpO2 was 85.5% ± 14.5, SpO2 during surgery was 61% ± 6.4, improving to 80.5% ± 2.1 on recovery.In conclusion, prolonged recovery anaesthesia is achievable with MS-222 dilutions in salamander. Reflectance SpO2 could prove valuable during immersion anaesthesia.
6 Jul 2022, 11:20 pm
Laboratory Animals
Laboratory Animals, Ahead of Print.
Immunotoxicity assessment is an important part of non-clinical safety evaluation of biotechnology-derived pharmaceuticals. The reference ranges of evaluated parameters, which depend on the sex, age and geographical origin of animals, play a significant role in interpreting the study results. The aim of this study was to determine the reference ranges of parameters commonly used for non-clinical immunotoxicity studies in cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) of different ages. The percentages of CD3+, CD4+, CD8+, CD20+, CD16/56+ lymphocytes, and the serum levels of immunoglobulins A, M, G and E in clinically healthy cynomolgus monkeys of both sexes and different ages (37–104 months) were analysed. The lymphocyte subsets were assessed by flow cytometry and serum immunoglobulin levels were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Statistical analysis showed a weak rank correlation of CD3+, CD20+ lymphocyte levels with the ages of female and male cynomolgus monkeys, and no significant correlation with age for the combined data of both sexes. The serum levels of immunoglobulins A, M, G and E did not have a significant rank correlation with age for the combined data of both sexes, whereas IgA levels in females and IgG levels in males were weakly correlated with age. Overall, these results justify the use of animals aged three to eight years for non-clinical immunotoxicity evaluation of biotechnology-derived pharmaceuticals. It is important to avoid the formation of animal groups with extreme ages (three years or eight years) in one group during randomization.
29 Jun 2022, 12:16 am
Laboratory Animals
Laboratory Animals, Ahead of Print.
While over the past several decades mortality after pancreatic surgery has decreased to <5%, postoperative morbidity remains remarkably high, ranging from 15% to 65%. The development of a postoperative pancreatic fistula (POPF) is a significant contributor to morbidity in patients undergoing pancreatic surgery. POPF can lead to life-threatening conditions such as intra-abdominal abscess, uncontrolled hemorrhage, sepsis, and death. Rates of POPF have not significantly changed over time, despite the introduction of multiple technical and pharmacologic interventions aimed at their treatment and prevention. Unfortunately, there are few POPF experimental models that have been described in the literature and existing models are unable to reliably reproduce the clinical sequelae of POPF, limiting the development of new methods to prevent and treat POPF. Herein, we describe a new rat experimental model that reliably creates a POPF via transection of the common pancreatic duct.
26 Jun 2022, 11:48 pm
Laboratory Animals
Laboratory Animals, Ahead of Print.
Research on animals is essential for science and medical progress. While it is still necessary to conduct this research, it is essential to apply the highest standards in animal welfare, including animal husbandry and care. Furthermore, it is important to recognize the special relationship between research animals and the people who care for them. Caring for research animals can be extremely fulfilling and meaningful, but it also comes with challenges, particularly when caring for animals experiencing pain or distress. These challenges can lead to work-related mental stress. To get more insight into the challenges of working in animal research, we organized a panel discussion at the GV-SOLAS (German Society for Laboratory Animal Science) and IGTP (Interest Group Animal Caretakers) conference 2021 about work wellbeing. This discussion was the first of its kind in Germany. The active panel contributions included the view of an ethical philosopher, a scientist, a lecturer for laboratory animal science, an animal facility manager and an animal caretaker. They gave insights from their perspective into key factors that can affect human wellbeing in animal research. Keys ideas included stigmatization of work, tension between research aims and animal wellbeing, and the importance of supportive culture to overcome work-related strains, as well as lack of education and supportive environments to cope with emotional stress in the workplace. Overall, the discussion has shown that we must also promote human wellbeing when promoting culture of care in animal research, because there is strong relationship between culture of care and individual performance.
26 Jun 2022, 11:13 pm
Laboratory Animals
Laboratory Animals, Ahead of Print.