9 Jan 2021, 2:31 am
Media, War & Conflict
Media, War &Conflict, Ahead of Print.
Covering a conflict for journalists when they are members of one of the conflicting parties has some professional and moral dilemmas. It creates tensions between their professionalism and sense of belonging to their community. This article, focusing on journalism on both sides of Cyprus, explores how journalists think of their role in conflict-affected societies. Based on semi-structured, face-to-face interviews with journalists from the Turkish Cypriot media and Greek Cypriot media, it explores journalists’ self-reflection of their roles and the forces they believe that affect their work when reporting on the Cyprus conflict. The findings show journalists do not have a fixed identity but a changeable one. They renegotiate and reproduce the meaning and role of journalism in society, and move between professional and ethnic identities depending on the state of the conflict.
10 Dec 2020, 11:20 pm
Media, War & Conflict
Media, War &Conflict, Ahead of Print.
A total of 324 journalists have been killed in the world in the last decade. In Latin America and the Caribbean, the situation is alarming. Based on these statistics, this work presents an investigation with journalists from 10 countries. Based on in-depth interviews and the Delphi method, the study explores professionals’ perspectives about violence against journalists, pointing out the challenges for women, the role of independent media together with journalists’ networks and an increasing concern about governmental control over information.
10 Dec 2020, 11:19 pm
Media, War & Conflict
Media, War &Conflict, Ahead of Print.
Social media have come to play a vital role not only in our everyday lives, but also in times of conflict and crisis such as natural disasters or civil wars. Recent research has highlighted, on the one hand, the use of social media as a means of recruitment by terrorists and, on the other hand, the use of Facebook, Twitter, etc. to gain the support of the population during insurgencies. This article conducts a qualitative content analysis of content on Twitter concerning the conflict in the Jammu and Kashmir region. The tweets following the death of a popular militant, Burhan Wani, cover three different themes: (1) criticism of intellectuals; (2) Burhan Wani’s impact on the conflict; and (3) tweets referring to the conflict itself. Generally, people use Twitter to make their own point of view clear to others and discredit the opposing party; at the same time, tweets reflect the antagonism between the two parties to the conflict, India and Pakistan. The sample of tweets reflects the lack of awareness among people in the region regarding the motivations of the new generation of militancy emerging in Kashmir after 1990.
4 Dec 2020, 4:23 am
Media, War & Conflict
Media, War &Conflict, Ahead of Print.
This study explores the photographic representations of two terrorist incidents, the 2015 Paris attacks and the Beirut bombings, produced by the leading global news agencies. The study conducts a content analysis of the photographs produced by AP, Reuters and AFP to identify the recurring patterns of the images under the discourse of ‘othering’ and ‘grievability’. It is observed that the agencies represented the two incidents differently as they show distinctive patterns in their manners of portrayal. It is argued that the apparent ‘hierarchy of news values’ is accompanied by the ‘hierarchy of human lives’ within the photographic representations, whereby the photographs of the Paris attacks, recognized as an extraordinary event, speak of humanization in which lives of the sufferers are valued while the photographs of the Beirut bombings, seen as an ordinary event, speak of dehumanization, where lives are devalued. Implications for global journalism and news value are discussed.
17 Nov 2020, 9:44 pm
Media, War & Conflict
Media, War &Conflict, Ahead of Print.
This study examines the Pakistan military’s strategic use of social media in encouraging and sustaining public support for the ongoing war against terrorism in Pakistan. Its findings indicate that the military used significantly different types of strategic frames in response to a fast-changing, evolving security situation in the country. Framing was used strategically to facilitate public–military and people-to-people engagements. Motivational frames were the most dominant forms of communication used to generate dialogue between the military and the public in the war against terrorism and to enhance public participation in it. This study also indicates that different frames used by Pakistan’s military on social media significantly mediated military engagement with different segments of society during the critical phases of Pakistan’s ongoing war against terrorism.
30 Oct 2020, 3:50 am
Media, War & Conflict
Media, War &Conflict, Ahead of Print.
A growing body of the International Relations (IR) literature has started to pay attention to the concept of ‘strategic narratives’, stressing the role played by storylines in affecting public attitudes. However, the analytical differences between concepts like strategic narratives, master narratives, frames, framing and master frames have been rarely investigated through a comprehensive approach. Very different definitions and perspectives have been adopted in the IR scholarly debate and beyond, while few studies have identified how ideologies underlie frames and narratives. This article aims at filling this gap and makes two claims. First, the process of plot formation, their strategic dimension and the levels at which narratives operate are the special features that distinguish strategic narratives from all other concepts. Second, only by unpacking – from an interdisciplinary perspective – the complex relation between ideology and narratives can we understand the proper conceptual boundaries in the narrative literature. In sum, there are four levels of discourse to be considered: frame, strategic narrative, master narrative and ideology.
16 Sep 2020, 11:34 pm
Media, War & Conflict
Media, War &Conflict, Ahead of Print.
This article explores the role of the media as a discursive tool in the commemoration of Bangladesh’s war of liberation. The author critically engages with the notion of mediated memory in the foreground of corporate nationalism. Through a discourse analysis of print advertisements published in Bangladeshi newspapers on the country’s Independence and Victory Days over five decades, she traces the use of nationalism in advertising discourse and the shift from a development-oriented approach to corporate nationalism, with the underlying theme of glorification of war. The study found that nationalistic-based discourse is a key theme of Bangladeshi advertisements published on its days of national significance – history and its heroes, symbols and images, poetry and song, are all used to invoke a banal nationalism. These discursive constructions depend largely on the political context but, as long as the political line is adhered to, advertisers are free to use nationalistic discourse to promote their brands, products and services.
15 Sep 2020, 12:00 am
Media, War & Conflict
Media, War &Conflict, Ahead of Print.
This study examines and compares news framing of the protests in Ukraine from 30 November 2013 to 26 February 2014, encompassing three news sectors in the hybrid regime setting of Russia and the liberal democracy of the UK. Following Godefroidt et al.’s (2016) approach in their article in International Communication Gazette 78(8), the findings suggest that, while the Russian media used economic consequences and morality frames in the reporting of the protests reflecting the country’s political rhetoric on Ukraine, the British media preferred a human-interest frame and delivered a primarily one-sided coverage. The confrontational interpretations of the crisis by the Russian and UK media revealed an illiberal trend in both the hybrid regime and the liberal democracy.
14 Sep 2020, 11:59 pm
Media, War & Conflict
Media, War &Conflict, Ahead of Print.
By using information sources from the opponent’s side, the media can introduce alternative viewpoints and broaden the discussion on the conflict. One important information source that has received little attention in research is the other side’s media reports. This study explores the practice of inter-media citations by analyzing Israeli and Palestinian news reports published over a span of 10 years. Based on a computerized quantitative analysis of 235,340 media texts, the authors show how the weaker (Palestinian) side relies more heavily on the media of the stronger side (Israel) than vice versa. During escalations or negotiations, the rate of use of inter-media citations is significantly higher than during routine periods. Furthermore, two main characteristics of a media source make it more likely to be cited: political agenda and accessibility. The authors discuss the factors shaping the phenomenon of inter-media citations and the implications of this practice for conflict coverage.
20 Aug 2020, 8:55 pm
Media, War & Conflict
Media, War &Conflict, Ahead of Print.
This article investigates whether, in light of the political and economic changes that occurred in the region in the last decades, crises are still a catalyst for foreign reporting on Latin America. The study comprises 3,831 articles related to the 20 Latin American countries published from 2000 to 2014 in the German press: the dailies Süddeutsche Zeitung and Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung, the political magazine Der Spiegel and the alternative newspaper tageszeitung. The author found that more than half of the coverage on the continent depicted some sort of crisis, especially non-violent ones and controversies (36.4%). However, the portrayal of crises is sectorial. The ‘invisible’ Central American states (Honduras, Haiti, Guatemala and El Salvador) and the countries against the Washington Consensus (Bolivia, Ecuador and Venezuela) exhibit a higher coefficient of crisis intensity. Colombia, despite considerable press attention, has the most crisis-centred reporting due to the conflict with FARC.